Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Oil Curse, By Michael Ross - 1433 Words

The discovery of oil in a low-income country is often met with both excitement and dread. Many theories circle around the idea of a â€Å"resource curse† that supposedly affects countries with large amounts of resources. The resource curse essentially dictates that a country with large amounts of resources is not as likely to thrive as a country with low levels of resources. The issue with this view is that it generalizes too much; there is just as much variance in the levels of economic success between resource-rich countries as there is between them and resource-scarce countries. This is why this newly found oil in this country does not necessarily need to be met with dread, as there is a chance for success. However, this newly found potential for wealth needs to be handled with extreme care. In the following memo I will outline what the resource curse is, why some countries are affected by it and others not, and finally I will outline how this country should handle its newl y found oil wealth. Michael Ross in his book The Oil Curse, analyzes in great detail the effects of oil on a country’s economic, political, and social environment. Ross argues that â€Å"resource curse† is not the appropriate terminology; â€Å"it is more accurately a mineral curse†, as countries are generally not affected by other types of resources. (Ross, p.1) In fact, oil and natural gas tend to be the most common villains of the resource curse. Humphreys, Sachs, and Stiglitz hypothesize that â€Å"countries withShow MoreRelatedThe Natural Resource Curse : How Wealth Can Make You Poor1416 Words   |  6 Pagesadvantage of abundant resources could turn out to be a fatal weakness. In the article â€Å"The Natural Resource Curse: How Wealth Can Make you Poor† , Michael Ross describes the situation as â€Å"the natural resource curse†. In this paper, I would like to fully explain what â€Å"the natural resource curse† is and in what ways the curse is affecting those countries and how different countries react to the curse. Firstly, not all natural resources cause problems. For example, water belongs to natural resources andRead MoreThe Devil s Excrement By Jerry Useem912 Words   |  4 Pagesresource curse suggests that the wealth from resource abundance causes countries to be riskier with their money. Instead of investing in multiple sectors and foreign bonds, African countries tend to indulge in the wealth and focus solely upon it with no consideration of sustainability or possible busts. Since policymakers become shortsighted, they do not realize that that their economy is falling apart until it is too late. Finally, the most internal-facing explanation for the resource curse is theRead MoreThe Oil Curse And Its Effects On Economic Development1906 Words   |  8 Pages The Oil Curse and the other articles under review discussed oil revenues and the effects it has on economic development, regime durability and civil wars in oil rich nations. What is it about oil wealth that seems to hinder development and trigger internal conflict? Scholars have examined the oil curse phenomenon from different perspectives and draw various conclusions from their analyses. Some have argued that oil wealth inhibits growth and development; others have questioned the resource curseRead MoreAngola s Percentile Rank On Each Of The Six Governance Indicators1086 Words   |  5 Pagesgovernment. Why does it matter? The resource-rich countries are more likely to be authoritarian than democracies (Mikesell, 1997). Other scholars present evidence that democratic government, especially parliamentary democratic, help to avoid resource curse (Damania and Bulte 2003). Unfortunately, the Republic of Angola is ruled by a dominant president and the ruling party; the opposition is marginalized, and elections are â€Å"held basically to render legitimacy to the incumbent regime† (Amundsen, 2011)Read MoreThe Oil Curse Essay2359 Words   |  10 PagesSaudi Arabia is a primarily oil-based economy, with oil being the most important component of the nation’s rapid economic development since World War II. U.S. geologists discovered oil in the region in the 1930s, and since exports expanded most notably in the 1960s, production and rich revenues have been seemingly limitless. The amount of oil in Saudi Arabia’s reserves amounts to close to a quarter of the world’s entire oil resources , and today the country produces about 10,000 barrels a day. AsRead MoreHow Do Natural Resources Affect Economic Growth?4464 Words   |  18 PagesSommario ABSTRACT 3 NATURAL RESOURCES COURSE 3 Volatility 4 Corruption 4 Weak Government 4 Unaccountable government 4 Dutch disease 5 RUSSIA AND THE DUTCH DESEASE 5 Growth and oil price 6 Appreciation of Real Exchange Rate 7 Manufacturing and services sector 7 Growth of real wage 8 LESSON FROM NORWAY 8 Benefits from the management of the natural resources 9 The separation of power 10 Diversification growth 10 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 11 â€Æ' ABSTRACT Despite commonRead MoreCapital Punishment Has Always Been A Major Controversy1710 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"idolatry, witchcraft, blasphemy, murder, manslaughter, poisoning, bestiality, sodomy, adultery, man stealing, and false witness in case rebellion† (Bohm). According to Bohm’s article, â€Å"during the previous years, everyone was evil, plagued by the curse of original sin and criminals were simply less able to control evil, and crime was considered a failure of will.† A Capital Punishment Info base resource adds to the same matter of religion saying that â€Å"The bible prescribed death as the penalty forRead MoreDubais Political and Economic Development: Essay38738 Words   |  155 Pages Table of Contents I Persian Gulf Development Literature Oil Curse Literature Arab and Islamic Factors Regional Ovemiew and Historical Background Dubais Development History I1 PI1 Explaining Dubai9sDevelopment Outcome Why Not Other Gulf States? Dubai versus the Development Literature IV Dubai in a Cornparatbe Corntext Saudi Arabia Qatar Brunei Conclusion Appendix Bibliography Introduction Dubai, a tiny, oil-exporting city-state located in the Persian Gulf, has recentlyRead MoreBodie, Kane, Marcus Study Guide Essay40928 Words   |  164 Pagesexisting directors were reelected even though many shareholders were very vocal in their disapproval of Citi’s performance (Citi had abysmal performance in 2008 and had to be bailed out by the government and most shareholder value was destroyed). Michael Jacobs, a former Treasury official, wrote in The Wall Street Journal that Citicorp had few directors with experience in the financial markets and GE had only one director with experience in a financial institution even though GE Capital is a majorRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 PagesServices, Pondicherry, India Printed in Great Britain on acid-free paper by Antony Rowe Ltd., Chippenham, Wiltshire ISBN 0–19–928335–4 978–0–19–928335–4 ISBN 0–19–928336–2 (Pbk.) 978–0–19–928336–1 (Pbk.) 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 3 FOREWORD ‘ Michael Bromwich is an exemplar of all that is good about the British tradition of academic accounting. Serious in intent, he has striven both to illuminate practice and to provide ways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

To Choose a Career

To Choose a Career Every year thousands of school leavers start their new lives as grown-ups. The first serious and extremely important decision each of them makes in life is what a career to choose. It’s a well-known fact that many young people prefer to follow the advice of their parents and continue family careers, like doctors, teachers, etc. Personally I believe that it is a way out only for those school leavers, who really feel that it is their vocation. I think so because I’m sure that work should bring satisfaction. A person should always have an opportunity for self-improvement and development, but it is possible only when you are interested in what you are doing. To my mind, before you make your final decision, you need to think a lot and to weigh all pros and contras. You should clearly understand what you want to do and what you can do well. You can turn to special magazines for teenagers, which offer various questionnaires, career quizzes and surveys to help the youth define their abilities and interests clearly. And finally you will make the right decision not a hasty one, but deliberate and rational. Personally I want to be an interpreter. I like foreign languages and succeed in their learning. I’m a person, who needs to cope with challenging tasks and improve my skills constantly. I prefer to forge ahead all the time, acquire new knowledge, meet new people and achieve new targets. I’m sure that this career will provide me not only with stable salary, but also with self-satisfaction and opportunities for development. The only thing I want to add is that when choosing a career it’s better to listen to your heart, but not what other people say.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Proteinuria In Childhood Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(78) " dipstick trial gives a qualitative judgement of urinary protein elimination\." Proteins are a major constituent of all our organic structure parts, including musculuss, castanetss, hair, and nails. Proteins that circulate in our blood stream besides carry out a figure of of import maps. They help to keep our organic structure maps such as protecting from infection, blood curdling and maintaining the right sum of fluid go arounding around our organic structures, so it is indispensable to keep the right degrees of proteins in our organic structures because of that albuminuria should go a disease which we should pay much attending. We will write a custom essay sample on The Proteinuria In Childhood Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The prevalence of stray albuminuria ( symptomless albuminuria ) detected by everyday uranalysis of kids who aged 7-15 old ages were shown to be approximately 10 % although this decreases to 0.1 per centum at repeated testing ( 1 ) . A survey numbering mass showing of school-aged kids in Asia revealed similar findings. The happening increases with age, extremums during adolescence, and is higher in misss. The of import thing is distinction the kid who has proteinuria associated to nephritic diseases, if non healthy kid with transient or benign status of albuminuria. Research shows that type and the degree of albuminuria is a good index of the grade of kidney harm and an earlier warning of developing progressive kidney disease. I hope to discourse about the pathophysiology, etiology, measurings, mark and symptoms, direction and new clinical probes sing albuminuria. What is albuminuria ( in kids ) ? Albuminurias means presence of proteins in inordinate sum, transcending their normal scope in piss. The undermentioned chart shows normal scope of protein elimination harmonizing to the age preferring their organic structure size. Children have somewhat higher usual rate of protein elimination than grownups. Age group Entire protein ( mg per 24 hours ) Entire protein ( mg per M2 per 24 hours ) 95 per centum assurance bounds ( mg per M2 per 24 hours ) 5 to 30 twenty-four hours ( premature ) 29 182 88 to 377 7 to 30 yearss ( full term ) 32 145 68 to 309 2 to 12 months ( baby ) 38 109 48 to 244 2 to 4 old ages ( kid ) 49 91 37 to 223 4 to 10 old ages 71 85 31 to 234 10 to 16 old ages 83 63 22 to 181 Physiologically most healthy kids excrete little sums of protein in their piss. Newborn babies shows highest sum of protein elimination, when corrected for organic structure surface country. Then it decreases with the age until late adolescence. Urinary proteins consist of many of import proteins such as albumen, other plasma proteins, proteins arising in the kidney and urinary piece of land, and chiefly Tamm-Horsfall protein ( uromodulin ) . The normal mention scope of childhood albuminuria is 100mg/m3/day. Mechanism of albuminuria in kids In the kidney, fluid that resembles plasma is filtrated from the glomerular capillaries into the nephritic tubules which called as glomerular filtration. This glomerular barrier consists of three beds. They are, Capillary endothelium The cellar membrane Specialized epithelial tissue of the capsule which is made up of Podocytes. In the healthy persons, negligible protein sum is filtrated because of both size selectivity and the charge. Filtration barrier contains negatively charged proteins named sialoproteins and proteoglycans such as heparan sulphate. So this barrier can drive the negatively charged proteins. Fixed collagen net within cellar membrane, podocytes with their interdigitating processes serve as successful size barrier. Low molecular weight proteins can be filtrated by the glomerulus and absorbed by proximal nephritic tubules. Some of them are microglobulin, ? microglobulin, vitamin A1 adhering protein like insulin ( 3, 4 ) . Most of the protein in urine comes from caducous cannular cells ( 5 ) . We can categorise albuminurias harmonizing to mechanism of albuminuria under three headers. They are glomerular albuminurias, cannular albuminuria, secretory albuminuria. Glomerular albuminuria Glomerular albuminuria is caused by increasing permeableness of capillary endothelium. This may run from A ; lt ; 1g to A ; gt ; 30g/24hr ( 1 ) . This can be categorized into selective and nonselective glomerular albuminuria. In selective glomerular albuminurias low molecular weight plasma proteins can be loss, together with albumen. In non selective glomerular albuminuria, proteins with big molecular weight such as IgG can be loss. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, amylodosis, segmental glomeruloclerosis, membranous kidney disease are some of the upset characters of glomerular albuminuria. Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis can be due to damage glomerular cellar membrane, increasing the permeableness for plasma proteins. In inborn or minimum nephrotic syndrome, diminishing anionic charge of glomerular cellar membrane can do to loss of albumen. In recent yesteryear, patients who have proteinuria with reduced nephritic mass besides can be found in a great trade of attention-grabbing. Experiments sing this reveal that staying uriniferous tubules are affecting in hyperfiltration taking to progressive glomeruloclerosis ( 7 ) . Glomerular albuminuria should be suspected by first forenoon urine protein/creatinine ratio A ; gt ; 1.0 or albuminurias with any degree, together with hydrops, high blood pressure, nephritic disfunction and haematuria. Tubular albuminuria In healthy people great sum of proteins which has low molecular weight than albumens such as ?2 microglobulin, Ig visible radiation ironss, retinal binding protein and amino acids are filtrated and later reabsorbed by the proximal tubules ( 8 ) . In tubulointerstitial diseases, these filtered protein are lost in the piss due to a defect in cannular epithelial. Tubular albuminuria can be inherited or acquired upset may be with glycosuria, aminoaciduria and phosphaturia. The relatively high protein elimination can be observed in newborns represents cannular albuminurias owing to immatureness of their nephritic map. Glomerular albuminuria and cannular albuminurias can be distinguished by cataphoresis of the protein sample. Not like the glomerular albuminuria in cannular albuminurias really small sum of albumen can be detected. Secretory albuminuria Secretory albuminuria is owing to oversecretion of tissue proteins in the tubules, particularly oversecretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein from the epithelial cell of the cringle in Henle. Tamm- Horsfall protein has been shown to leak into the inerstium inexperimental reflux kidney disease, clogging uropathy and some tubulointerstitial upsets ( 8 ) . Measurements of albuminuria The dipstick trial The urine dipstick trial gives a qualitative judgement of urinary protein elimination. You read "The Proteinuria In Childhood Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" The tetrabromophenol bluish colorimetric method is used by the urine dipstick trial, which is by and large used as testing method. The strength of coloring material alterations from yellow to blue correlatives with the sum of protein in the piss. Albuminuria is chiefly detected by this trial and less sensitive to other signifiers of proteins specially which has low molecular weight. This trial is sensitive to albumin concentration every bit low as 15mg/dL. But it is non satisfactorily sensitive for mensurating albumen in the scope of microalbuminuria. The dipstick is reported as negative, hint ( 10-20 milligram per deciliter ) , 1+ ( 30 milligram per deciliter ) , 2+ ( 100 milligram per deciliter ) , 3+ ( 300 milligram per deciliter ) , and 4+ ( 1,000 milligram per deciliter or greater ) ( 6 ) . But wi th the dilute piss ( specific gravitation A ; lt ; 1.002 ) and acidic piss which has low pH value than 4.5 and in a disease status which the major urine protein is non albumin can give false negative consequences. False positive consequences can be given with alkalic piss ( pH A ; gt ; 8 ) , concentrated piss ( specific gravitation A ; gt ; 1.030 ) , gross haematuria, bacteriuria, taint with antiseptic agents. A dipstick should be considered positive for protein if it registers A ; gt ; 1+ ( 30 mg/dL ) in urine sample in which the particular gravitation is A ; lt ; 1.015. If the specific gravitation is A ; gt ; 1.015, the dipstick must read amp ; gt ; 2+ to be considered clinically important. Sulfosalicylic acid trial To corroborate the positive consequences of the dipstick trial another trial must be done by utilizing sulfosalicylic acid. Because this trial can observe all categories of proteins. In the trial three beads of sulfosalicylic acid are added to 5 milliliter of piss. So this causes to change over the solution into acidic taking to the precipitation of proteins. But this besides can give false negative consequences due to diluite urine. False positive consequences can take topographic point owing to happening of radiographic contrast stuffs ( 9 ) . Spot urine protein/creatinine ( UPr/Cr ) trial Children with positive consequences for dipstick trial with relentless albuminuria should travel through the more precise topographic point urine protein/creatinine ( UPr/Cr ) trial which gives quantitative measuring of proteins in the piss. The normal ratio for random urine protein/creatinine ratio in younger kids than 2 old ages is A ; lt ; 0.5, in kids 2 twelvemonth of age or older is A ; lt ; 0.2. A ratio A ; gt ; 3 reveals the nephrotic scope of albuminuria. If a kid is given ( UPr/Cr ) 2 A ; gt ; ratio A ; gt ; 0.2, it is required to obtain a 24 hour urine aggregation. It has found that in kids with terrible malnutrition, serum and urine creatinine degrees depend on musculus mass, because of that the ratio is non valid. However acquiring random protein/creatinine ratio is a convenient method for gauging urine protein elimination alternatively of acquiring a 24-hour piss aggregation which gives more precise information. But it may be a ground to inaccurate consequences because 20 four-hour urine aggregations are non practical in kids in nappies, and although the kid is potty-trained. To measure the truth of the 24 hr urine sample, it may be helpful in mensurating the sum of creatinine. Steady-state day-to-day creatinine elimination is 20 mg/kg in kids from 1 to 12 old ages of age and 22 to 25 mg/kg in older kids. Girls show lower values in creatinine elimination. Normal protein elimination in kids in 24 hr urine aggregation is defined as A ; lt ; 4 mg/m2/hr, unnatural is defined as 4-40 mg/m2/hr, nephrotic scope albuminuria is defined as A ; gt ; 40 mg/m2/hr ( 9 ) . other methods Another of import and most normally used quantitative methods in mensurating protein eliminations are the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dye-binding methods, the Ponceau-S method and Benzethonium chloride method. Low-molecular-weight proteins such as ?2 microglobulin can be straight ditected by Urinary protein cataphoresis. But this will be done in particular state of affairss and it is non a portion of the everyday rating of a kid with albuminuria. Similarly, the finding of microalbuminuria in diabetic kids requires the usage of more sensitive methods such as radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent check ( 10 ) . The etiology The etiology of albuminuria in kids is varied, but harmonizing to the clinical timing and frequence of the job, albuminuria can be categorized under three conditions. They are transeunt albuminurias, orthostatic albuminuria and relentless albuminuria. The orthostatic and transeunt signifiers are benign and more common. Persistent albuminuria may be associated with implicit in nephritic diseases and requires farther probes. Transient albuminuria Transient albuminuria is impermanent and 30 % – 50 % of the kids with albuminuria belong to this class ( 10 ) . This can go on owing to strenuous exercising, febrility, emphasis, exposure to cold, abdominal surgery, ictuss, desiccation, heat failure and besides due to hemodynamic changes in glomerular blood flow. After stoping of those factors transient albuminuria resolutenesss impetuously. So any therapy or intervention is non needed for kids who have this benign status. Children who have symptomless isolated albuminuria, dipstick trial demands to be repeated hebdomadal no less than two occasions to make up one’s mind the albuminuria was non transeunt. If the albuminuria disappears on repetition testing, so it is likely transient. Orthostatic albuminuria Orthostatic albuminuria or postural albuminuria is frequent in kids. Orthostatic albuminuria is affecting in 60 % of all instances of symptomless albuminuria reported in kids. Children with orthostatic albuminurias excrete negligible sum of proteins in supine place. But in the unsloped place protein elimination with the piss is raised up to 10 creases, up to 1000mg/24hr ( 1 ) . Hypertension, nephritic disfunction, hypoalbuminaemia, and haematurias are non present. If all research lab trials are normal apart from persistently elevated protein elimination, farther experiments should be done to govern out or corroborate orthostatic albuminuria. The kid is asked to empty his/her vesica, merely earlier traveling to bed at dark and collects the first urine sample in the following forenoon instantly after originating. Orthostatic albuminuria will be confirmed by the absence of proteins in the first urine sample for three back-to-back yearss. If the early forenoon urine protein/creatinine ( UPr/Cr ) ratio is A ; lt ; 0.2 mg/mg or the protein elimination in the piss collected from lying/supine place is A ; lt ; 60mg/m2/day are declarative values of orthostatic albuminurias ( 11 ) . The cause of orthostatic albuminuria is unknown ; nevertheless, partial nephritic vena obstructors in the unsloped place and nephritic hemodynamic alterations have been suggested. Persistent albuminuria Persistent albuminurias can be verified by first urine sample on three back-to-back yearss. Valuess of relentless albuminurias are, protein elimination greater than 4 mg/m2/hr in a 24 hr urine aggregation or topographic point urine protein/creatinine ratio greater than 0.2 mg/mg ) in a urine sample ( 1 ) . This can be pointed out under glomerular or cannular beginning, which I have discussed earlier. Further experiments are needed, to except relentless albuminurias from any implicit in nephritic pathology. Causes for albuminurias are more common than tubulointerstitial causes for albuminuria. We can acknowledge so many different implicit in causes for relentless albuminuria. Specially diabetes mellitus and high blood force per unit area can do harm to the kidney which lead to albuminurias, but they are non outstanding in kids. Research workers have shown that race and ethnicity besides have some consequence on developing albuminuria. African, American, Hispanic, Native American and P acific Islanders illustrations are more likely than Whites to hold albuminurias ( 12 ) . Other causes include, primary and secondary glomerulonephropathy, Collagen vascular disease, medicines, injury, toxic conditions, infections, malignances and immune system upsets. Multiple myeloma and amyloidosis can besides take to proteinuria by increasing production of proteins ( 11 ) . Examples for some of them are listed below. Cause to relentless albuminuria and its clinical characteristics. Glomerular diseases Clinical characteristics Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis haematuria, high blood pressure, oliguria, presence of ruddy blood cells, white blood cells, and cellular dramatis personaes in urine, nephrotic-range albuminuria, hypoalbuminaemia, lipemia Congenital nephrotic syndrome hydrops at birth or during first hebdomad of life, hypoalbuminaemia, lipemia IgA kidney disease Normally older than 10 old ages, haematuria, high blood pressure, oliguria, presence of ruddy blood cells, white blood cells, and cellular dramatis personaes in piss. Membranoproliferative glomerulonepritis haematuria, high blood pressure, oliguria, presence of ruddy blood cells, white blood cells, and cellular dramatis personaes in piss Henoch-Sch A ; ouml ; nlein purpura cellular dramatis personaes on uranalysis Diabetess mellitus elevated fasting blood glucose, glycosuria, weight loss Malignancies weight loss, cachexy Tubular disease Acute cannular mortification nephritic cannular epithelial cell dramatis personaes on uranalysis, elevated serum creatinine Acute tubulointerstitial Bright’s disease acute rise in serum creatinine degree, eosinophilia, white blood cells casts on uranalysis Polycystic kidney disease haematuria, high blood pressure, nephritic inadequacy, nephromegaly, ruddy blood cells on uranalysis, elevated serum creatinine Toxins elevated degree of the toxin Proximal nephritic cannular acidosis acidic piss, glycosuria, aminoaciduria, growing failure, polyuria Symptoms and marks in kids with albuminuria Clinical characteristics which related to the causes of the albuminuria, can be taken as symptoms and marks associated with relevant conditions of albuminuria, which were given in the tabular array above. Research shows most of the kids with albuminurias will non detect any unnatural mark or symptoms sing this. In kids, differential diagnosing of albuminuria has a big assortment of symptoms and marks. But in inordinate grade of albuminuria, it has some common characteristics related to nephritic disease. Some of them are edema, growing failure and high blood pressure. Their piss may look foamy in lavatories, due to presence of big sums of protein. Although edema formation is non good understood, it can explicate like this. In most cases, monolithic protein loss with urine consequences in hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia, which leads to cut down the plasma oncotic force per unit area and transudate of fluid from the intravascular compartment to the interstitial infinite, leads to roll up hydrops fluid in tissues result in periorbital, presacral, venereal, or ankle hydrops. The decrease in intravascular volume decreases nephritic perfusion force per unit area, triping the rennin-angiotensin system. This system acts on adrenal secretory organs to release aldosterone. Both rennin-angiotensin system and aldosterone stimulate the cannular resorption of Na and H2O which leads to high blood pressure. Management of albuminuria in childhood A complete history of the kid must be taken as the initial rating of albuminuria. History of the nephritic disease, alterations in urine end product, alterations in weight, gross haematuria and recent upper respiratory infections, should be included for a complete history. First a quantitative measuring should be come into procedure utilizing random or 24 hr aggregation for the UPr/Cr ratio. Parents can liberate from concern if the albuminuria is transeunt or orthostatic and the kid is symptomless. But the kid should be followed by sing a physician and must take the ratio UPR /Cr in each visit. If relentless albuminuria is recognized, intervention procedure depends on the sum of proteins in the piss. If the entire protein elimination is A ; lt ; 1g/24hr or UPR / Cr is less than 1.0, kid should see physician one time for six months. If the albuminuria exists more than a twelvemonth, kid should travel through a nephritic biopsy. If the entire protein elimination is A ; gt ; 1g/24hr, a uranalysis should be performed and the physical scrutiny should be done, which consists of measurings of tallness, designation of hydrops, ascites, weight and blood force per unit area, skin lividness and tactual exploration of the kidneys in newborn babies. Then a blood sample must be taken for finding of electrolytes, creatinine, complete blood count, blood urea N and entire protein albumen every six to 12 months. The intervention of relentless albuminurias should be aimed towards the implicit in cause. Renal echography may be helpful to separate anatomical or inborn abnormalcies such as pol ycystic kidneys in immature kids ( less than six old ages of age ) . If a kid shows elevated creatinine degrees or hypocomplementaemia or haematuria, a chronic glomerular disease may be present. When urinary protein elimination is in the nephrotic scope ( UPr/Cr A ; gt ; 3.0 ) , even without hydrops, and the kid is younger than six old ages of age, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome can be expected and a test of corticosteroid therapy should be performed. So a kid with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome should be given a test of Orasone ( 2 mg/kg/day, or 60 mg/m2/day to a upper limit of 80 mg/day ) in up to three divided doses for four to six hebdomads, followed by intervention on other every twenty-four hours for another four to six hebdomads ( 13 ) . Second-line therapy ( cyclophosphamide, Leukeran [ Leukeran ] , cyclosporine [ Sandimmune ] ) may be necessary if steroid intervention fails or inauspicious effects are intolerable ( 7 ) . If the patient has nephrotic scope protein elimination and if that kid is older than six twelvemonth of age, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome can non be expected. So the type of the disease responsible for the nephrotic syndrome can be identified by a n ephritic biopsy and a referral to a paediatric nephrologist. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitor and/or angiotensin-II receptor blocker can be given to the patient with albuminuria as a consequence of nephritic disfunction. It will assist to decrease albuminurias and slow patterned advance of nephritic disease. The kid should travel through a farther unequivocal diagnosing, which is done by a paediatric nephrologist. In recent National Guidelines for the direction of kidney disease NICE ( National institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ) recommends that people with kidney disease and albuminuria should hold systolic blood force per unit area between 120mmHg and 130mmHg and the diastolic blood force per unit area to be less than 80mmHg, as it helps to protect the kidney ( 14 ) . Excessive limitations on the kid ‘s day-to-day life and physical activity are non required. It has been recognized dietetic protein supplementation to reconstruct the loss of protein is non recommended as it may be harmful. Taking inordinate sums of salt is non desirable and if edema develops, precise salt limitation may be necessary. New clinical probe Research workers in Canada late reported that high doses of the anti-hypertensive drug ; Candesartan Cilexetil could cut down albuminurias. This drug is an angiotensin-II receptor blocker. It besides has an consequence on fibrosis and redness in the kidney which helps to decelerate the kidney failure in this disease status ( 15 ) . Nutcracker syndrome may be an of import disease status of orthostatic albuminuria in kids. The patients with orthostatic albuminurias have unnatural degrees of anteroposterior diameter and peak speed at the hilar and aorto-mesenteric part of the left nephritic vena. This has been investigated by Doppler echography ( 16 ) . An albumin elimination in the scope of microalbuminuria is now known to be an early index of diabetic glomerular disease and systemic endothelial disfunction and is a utile predictive marker for future cardiovascular events ( 17 ) . Decision Proteinuria is a common research lab determination in kids. Pathophysiology of albuminurias can chiefly depend on either glomerular or cannular defects. A speedy but qualitative appraisal of albuminurias can be taken utilizing dipstick and sulfosalicylic acid methods. More accurate quantitation is obtained by mensurating protein elimination in 24-hour urine samples or by taking the protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples. Frequently it can be recognized as either a transient or orthostatic in the signifier of benign status. Orthostatic albuminuria is characterized by the presence of protein in urine samples collected in the unsloped place. Persistent albuminuria is associated with serious nephritic diseases. Clinical characteristics from the history, physical scrutiny, and research lab trials help to happen out the cause of albuminuria. If the albuminuria is transeunt or orthostatic, particular interventions are non required. But farther interventions and research lab trials are mandatory, when refering about the implicit in disease, if the status is relentless. How to cite The Proteinuria In Childhood Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Waste Textiles and Development Prospect †

Question: Discuss about the Waste Textiles and Development Prospect. Answer: Introduction: There are two significant constraints that have been faced in designing and producing the textile item. They are the production cost and the quality of the product. The term production cost signifies the cost experienced in manufacturing or producing the specific product. However pertaining to this scenario, it is noted that the production cost has been limited to under $50 which certainly bring in constraints on compromising upon the quality of the product. Therefore quality becomes another constraint in the decision making process. This is because if the production cost is fixed even before considering the type of product to be produced, designing, materials to be used, sewing charges and others, it limits the manufacturer to opt for compromises (Sahni et al., 2010). Nonetheless, the manufacturer might consider in using the re-cycled materials to be another suitable option to curtail the cost. However, reusing or up cycling of the raw materials has been a pivotal topic of discussion which allured the world to go gaga over it. There are reasons that can be cited pertaining to the aspect of reusing textiles which are as follows: It is instrumental in the minimization of green house emissions It helps in eradicating landfill space problems It aids in the conservation of energy It transforms the clothes to new materials (Ruifang, 2009) However, there is another terminology that crops up when citing the reasons for reusing textiles which is the issue of sustainability. Sustainability is considered to be a vast subject which has been prioritized i the recent ages as it contributes to the healthier edge of the society as well as conservation of the third planet. Concerning the supply chain framework of the textile sector, diverse suppliers have been traced to get involved in several complicated domains such as the environmental, social and others (Zhongzhen et al., 2012). Sustainability referring to reuse materials or cheap use certainly comes with an environmental cost. According to the World Wildlife Fund, t is recorded that 1kg lint of cotton is used in the production of a single jeans. Further this 1 kg cotton is derived from 8500 litres. However, the entire process incorporates the usage of pesticides, fertilizers along with water that certainly causes to water pollution and unwanted waste in the land. Considering the social sustainability, it is witnessed that the labour pertaining to textile industry is often exploited as they are hired at very low wages, labour abuse, involuntary overtime and others in the developing countries. This is mostly happening because of the recent competitiveness in maintaining the production cost factor that employs cheap labour and its exploitation thereby giving rise to violation of labour laws and other legal standards (Early, 2011). Annotated ideation page supporting the constraints and ideas discussed The above photo illustrates those huge amounts of old garments wind up pertaining to landfill. Producers and fashion industries require pondering reusing. Additionally convoluting the sustainability pertaining to the worldwide design sector, it is noted that reusing or up cycling the textile materials is dangerous. Hennes Mauritz as well as Clemens August Brenninkmeijer rush to talk about energy effectiveness concerning their outlets and expanded reusing of garments holders as well as their inclination towards natural cotton. The resolved truth remains, in any case, that very nearly 11 million tons of materials winds up creating landfill corresponding to US (Fletcher, 2013). One obstacle for expanded material reusing in regards to the different strands that include apparel posing obstacles concerning the aspects of reprocessing as well as reusing. A few materials for example cotton or linen might be transformed into compost, however, petroleum based fibres, for example, polyester stands minimal possibility for up cycling (Kaye, 2011). Barely any municipalities acknowledge materials into their reusing programs. Including the loads of apparels dismissed through the retailers in light of certain defects or theses are the apparels which might have failed to hit the season while the outcome is an asset which is not so effectively recyclable while compared to that of aluminium jars, glasses and may be plastic (Shen, 2014). The child labours concerning the social sustainability issues must always be exhibited as it is a shame to see the future of the globe to toil so hard day and night simply to earn their meals. In most cases, they are exploited so that they could earn few pennies and provide support to their families. It is undoubtedly saddening g to see the children being the worst victims of these sweatshops employed by different suppliers pertaining to textile industry due to international competitiveness (Norris, 2010). Furthermore, it is quite evident that these children will not be bestowed with breakfast as well as any other meal if they do not work. Nonetheless, banning the child labour has been considered to be an integral socialistic tool but has not been validated quite effectively. According to Forbes as speculated during 2015, it was recorded that pertaining to the Child Act of 1986, there was a sudden minimization corresponding to the wages paid to the children while on the other hand, t here was an expansion pertaining to child labour. While conducting surveys upon the households, it was further noted that the houses confronted more sickening and worsened situations after the ban concerning child labour (Worstall, 2015). Production of a least one A3- A4 size fashion drawing, artists impression type illustration and 2 technical drawings The fabric type on the front view is the lustre printed velvet fabric type. The back view possesses polyester fabric type. The lustre velvet fabric source is derived from tufted fabric. Furthermore the velvet fabric takes its birth from silk while cotton might be used rarely. Again on the contrary, polyester fabric uses synthetic polymer which is derived from pure terephthalic acid as well as monoethylene glycol (Singer, 2007). In order to care for the velvet fabric, the application of steamer might be initiated in order to press little creases if that appears at all. However, it is strictly prohibited to use iron for velvet fabric. Moreover, these are the fabrics that must be stored carefully but should never be folded. When it comes to cleaning, little volume of dishwasher might be mixed with water thus forming a sudsy solution. A cloth might be immersed and then rubbed in the velvet fabric area that comprises stain. It is suggested to send the velvet fabric to any dry cleaning centre or laundry (Castellani et al., 2015). Affordable pricing- these velvet fabrics come in affordable prices and are considered apt for upholstery and cushion cover materials. Gone are the days that the velvet costs so much, now-a-days, these fabric provides lustre and are of low cost which goes at par with the production cost. The constraints as discussed will be related to the production cost as well as the quality of the cushion cover. It has already been stated that the designer will be able to use only under $ 50 for production. Though there are velvet fabrics now-a-days that can be traced in the market which come at affordable and cheap pricing, still velvet is such a material that is always related with elegance, traditional value and its softness. Moreover, the production of authentic velvet comprises very high production cost. Therefore the production cost certainly becomes a constraint in the light that if the designer plans to use high quality velvet then it will create genuine issues. Another factor is the quality that will be compromised due to low production cost (Fletcher, 2013). Synthesizing new information into the design for mitigating constraints One such information might be the reuse of the velvet from the old apparel, curtains or other materials. In this way, it might bring down the expenses of the production cost. Moreover, reusing different coloured materials will certainly add a varied fervour to the design. Nonetheless, the design that has been selected is cut out from different material parts. Moreover, the materials in the design are used in smaller dimensions thus creating a contrasting image that allures the buyer. Further the quality is also not comprehensible as the materials are used in small dimensions and layered forms (Hiller Kozar, 2012). Production of a plan outlining the management of resources in finishing the task Week 1 Week 2-3 Week 3-4 Week 5 Week 6-7 Fabric arrangement Exploring design Designing Stitching Product finishing Production of the textile item At first, throughout week 1, the fabric arrangement was conducted which entails in reusing of the old velvet materials. During week 2 to 3, certain designs pertaining to cushion cover and upholstery were explored and thought about while week 3 -4 comprises the formation of the actual design. After that during week 5, different coloured materials were cut from the old materials thereby up cycling the raw materials and constituted for the formation of cushion cover through careful stitching. Lastly during week 6 to 7, cushion was inserted within the cover while the measurement was taken for the back cover and a zip was stitched (Castellani et al., 2015). Presentation of practical work in the form of photographic shoot a) Yes, the practical almost paralleled with the plan and decision making process as the constraints were kept in mind and worked accordingly. b) Certainly, the theme that has been highlighted through the entire process is of reusing textile concept. The basic concept underlines the issue of wasting less through the incorporation of reusing purposes. This is because through the aspect of reuse, the green house gas emissions are minimized, focuses on conservation of energy as well as help in eradicating landfill issues (Shen, 2014). c) One Hundred percent effort has been put in this overall process so that the project that has been weaved turns into reality and is acknowledged. d) Yes, the production schedule has been detailed thoroughly e) The schedule reflects all the areas concerned with the project f) Initially the planning was not detailed but with little assistance from external resources it has been worked out g) Initially there was indecision regarding the selection of the product and then regarding the material procurement. However, it got completed by time. h) Yes, the constraints have been identified as well as underpinned within the process journal. i) The project planning was such that it satiates the aspects like low cost production, unique design as well as durability which have been addressed in the finished good. j) The project process has already been analysed in the above section. Due to the constraints like low cost production and quality, reusing velvet fabric has been incorporated. Further going by the theories, it is noted that velvet comprises durability which is another aspect that satiates the decisions (Earley, 2011). k) The justifications posses the best efforts tried to materialise the project irrespective of certain constraints. l) Three changes to be made are as follows: References Castellani, V., Sala, S., Mirabella, N. (2015). Beyond the throwaway society: A life cycle?based assessment of the environmental benefit of reuse.Integrated environmental assessment and management,11(3), 373-382. Earley, R. (2011). Worn Again: Rethinking Recycled Textiles 20052009. Ekstrm, K. M., Salomonson, N. (2014). Reuse and recycling of clothing and textilesA network approach.Journal of Macromarketing,34(3), 383-399. Fletcher, K. (2013).Sustainable fashion and textiles: design journeys. Routledge. Hiller Connell, K. Y., Kozar, J. M. (2012). Sustainability knowledge and behaviors of apparel and textile undergraduates.International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education,13(4), 394-407. Kaye, L. (2011).Textile recycling innovation challenges clothing industry. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 30 Aug. 2017]. Niinimki, K., Hassi, L. (2011). Emerging design strategies in sustainable production and consumption of textiles and clothing.Journal of Cleaner Production,19(16), 1876-1883. Norris, L. (2010).Recycling Indian clothing: Global contexts of reuse and value. Indiana University Press. Palmskld, A. (2015). Reusing Textiles: On Material and Cultural Wear and Tear.Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research,7(1), 31-43. Ruifang, L. (2009). Review of Reusing Technology of Recycled PET Bottles [J].Guangdong Chemical Industry,7, 125. Sahni, S., Boustani, A., Gutowski, T., Graves, S. (2010). Textile Remanufacturing and Energy Savings. Shen, B. (2014). Sustainable fashion supply chain: Lessons from HM.Sustainability,6(9), 6236-6249. Singer, M. (2007).Textile Surface Decoration: Silk and Velvet. University of Pennsylvania Press. Taohai, Y., Jinshui, L. (2012). A Preliminary Study of Recycling and Reusing of Waste Textile [J].Shandong Textile Science Technology,2, 015. Tidwell, K. A. (2015).U.S. Patent No. 8,950,029. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Worstall, T. (2015).Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Aug. 2017]. Zhongzhen, W., Guiyan, X., Jiqing, D. (2012). Recycling and Reusing Industry of Waste Textiles Development Prospect.Shandong Textile Science Technology,4, 013.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Alessandro Scarlatti essays

Alessandro Scarlatti essays Alessandro Scarlatti was a composer during the Baroque Era. When compared with its music predecessors, Baroque music is said to be have more lavish textures, and more intense. This period of music introduced Operas, Oratorios, and Cantatas. It also brought along orchestral forms, though Operas became very popular. Operas were very popular because Italian intellectuals wanted to recapture the Greek Dramas, in which music played a major role. A distinguishing feature of the Baroque Era was the emphasis on the musics volume, texture, and pace. The previous era, (Late Renaissance) did not focus on these very much. Cannons and Fugues (strict forms of imitative polyphony) were also very popular during the Baroque Era. In this Era, composers were expected to prove their expertise whenever asked. To this, they were expected to improvise complex Fugues on a moments notice. Only the best were able to do this. Alessandro Scarlatti was born in Palermo on May 2nd 1660. Not much is known about his family, other than the fact that he had two sisters, and his parents were Sicilian, and most likely from Artistic families themselves. At the age of twelve, Alessandro and his two sisters were sent to Rome to live with relatives. There were rumors that Alessandro studied with Carissimi while there. Carissimi was an Italian composer who composed hundreds of motets and cantatas in addition to Masses, and other sacred music. When Alessandro was seventeen, he married, and not quite nine months later, their first of six children was born. At the age of eighteen, he composed his first opera, Gli Equivoci nel sembiante, which was a great success. Some may argue that this was actually his second opera. There are rumors that he composed an earlier opera, but it was never performed, and the title is unknown. Sometime between the time he was married, and his first composition, hi...

Friday, March 6, 2020

Dramatic Irony In Oedipus Rex Essays - Operas, Oedipus The King

Dramatic Irony In Oedipus Rex Essays - Operas, Oedipus The King Dramatic Irony In Oedipus Rex In Sophocles Oedipus Rex, dramatic irony is often present in Oedipus long speeches. Oedipus constantly sees things incorrectly, and is in denial that he has, in fact, killed his father and married his mother. This is first apparent when he demands the death of the man who killed Laios. Oedipus calls the man who did this an evil murder. Oedipus assumes that, as he became a citizen of Thebes after the murder, though he did kill someone, he is ruled out as a suspect of Laios assassin. In another speech, Oedipus accuses Creon of setting him up in order to get the throne, by framing him as the murderer. At this point, Oedipus is in denial that he is guilty, even though all of the evidence points to him. In reality, Creon does not want to be king at all; he enjoys his current position of wealth and power without any real responsibility. A third occasion of irony in the speeches is Oedipuss firm belief that the people who raised him were his biological parents. Oedipus refuses to believe th at Iocaste is his mother, and that by escaping to Thebes, he did not escape the fate he was told of at Delphi. Because of Oedipuss denial and stubbornness, he did suffer greatly and commit the greatest sin.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Motivating Junior High Students to Learn Math Research Paper

Motivating Junior High Students to Learn Math - Research Paper Example This research will begin with the statement that if junior high school students could be motivated to learn mathematics, they could achieve lifelong success since mathematics is the core of other academic disciplines such as accounting, construction, engineering, and medicine. Students in junior high school are energized by four main goals which include success, curiosity, creativity and satisfying relationships in their studies. In motivating students to learn mathematics, the teacher should ensure student engagement in learning. Engaged students are committed to their learning despite any challenges or obstacles and aim at accomplishing their studies. Educators agree that motivating junior high school student to learn mathematics is challenging. The social structure has changed hence teachers and other stakeholders need to change if the needs of the junior high school students are to be attained. Some societal changes include an increase in family breakups, working parents, and inn ovations in technology. The complexity of mathematical content in the curriculum has also changed. There is a strong relationship between school achievement and the quality of life. Motivation to learn mathematics can either be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is the desire of students to engage in learning activities which bring joy and self-confidence to them. This motivation focuses on the learning goals such as mastery of mathematical concepts.